Monday, September 22, 2008



LIST : ( B )
  • Badi Mata
  • Bagala
  • Bagalamukhi
  • Bahuchara Mata
  • Balarama
  • Banka-Mundi
  • Bhadra
  • Bhaga
  • Bhairava
  • Bhairavi
  • Bharani
  • Bharati
  • Bhavani
  • Bhumidevi
  • Bhumiya
  • Bhutamata
  • Bhuvaneshvari
  • Brahma
  • Brahmani
  • Brihaspati
  • Budha
  • Buddhi
  • Budhi Pallien
  • Balaji
  • Beeralingeswara
  • Bheeki

Badi Mata


In Hinduism, Bagala is one of the mahavidyas and an aspect of Devi.


In Hinduism, Bagalamukhi is one of the Ten mahavidyas. Bagalamukhi Devi smashes the devotee's misconceptions and delusions by her cudgel.

The name literally means “crane faced,” though this is a misnomer. The name 'Bagla' is a distortion of the original Sanskrit root 'ValgA'. She has a golden complexion and her cloth is yellow. She sits in a golden throne in the midst of an ocean of nectar full of yellow lotuses. A crescent moon adorns her head.

Two descriptions of the goddess are found in various texts- The 'Dwi-BhujA' (two handed), and the 'ChaturbhujA' (Four handed).

The Dwi-BhujA depiction is the more common, and is described as the 'Soumya' or milder form. She holds a club in her right hand with which she beats the demon, while pulling his tongue out with her left hand. This image is sometimes interpreted as an exhibition of stambhana, the power to stun or paralyze one’s enemy into silence. This is one of the boons for which Bagalamukhi’s devotees worship her. Other Mahavidya goddesses are also said to represent similar powers useful for defeating enemies, to be invoked by their worshippers through various rituals.

The legend behind the origin of goddess Bagalamukhi is as follows:

Once upon a time, a Huge storm erupted over the earth. As it threatened to destroy whole of the creation, all the gods assembled in the Saurashtra region. Goddess Bagalamukhi emerged from the 'Haridra Sarovara', and appeased by the prayers of the gods, calmed down the storm.

A demon named Madan undertook austerities and won the boon of vak siddhi, according to which anything he said came about. He abused this boon by harassing innocent people. Enraged by his mischief, the gods worshipped Bagalamukhi. She stopped the demon's rampage by taking hold of his tongue and stilling his speech. Before she could kill him, however, he asked to be worshipped with her, and she relented, That is why he is depicted with her.

Bagalamukhi maha mantram meaning is as below:

Oh Goddess, paralyze the speech and feet of all evil people. Pull their tongue, destroy their intellect.

Major temples to the goddess are situated in the Himachal Pradesh in the north, and at Nalkheda at Shajapur and Datia in Madhya Pradesh. Nepal, where the worship of tantric goddesses had Royal patronage, also has a large temple devoted to Bagalamukhi in the Newar city of Patan. The territory of the Bagalamukhi temple in Patan also has several other temples there: a Ganesha temple, a Shiva temple, a Saraswati temple, a Guheswari temple, a Bhairabha temple and also temples for many other gods and goddesses. In Hinduism there are 330 million separate gods and goddesses. The main difference between any other temple and a Bagalamukhi temple is that if someone worships all the gods in this temple, they would actually worship all 330 million gods and goddesses at one place. Bagalamukhi Devi Temple is situated at Guma in Mandi, in the state of Himachal Pradesh in North India. Large numbers of Hindu devotees offer prayers here to fulfill their wishes. Bagalamukhi Puja is performed by an experienced Pandit, as any mistake in the ritual may result in bad effects.

Bagalamukhi Devi is one of the ten Hindu Goddesses of Power. Bagalamukhi Puja is performed according to Vedic ritual, to defeat enemies. It not only decreases the power of the enemy, but also creates an atmosphere where he or she becomes helpless. The Abhimantrit Bagalamukhi Yantra is also used for the same purpose. It protects the person from enemies and evils.

Bahuchara Mata

Bahuchara Mata is a Hindu goddess. She was a daughter of a charan Bapal dan Detha. She and her sister were on journey with a caravan when a marauder named Bapiya attacked their caravan. It was common practice in charan men and women if overpowered by their enemies, not to surrender but to kill themselves. Shedding the blood of charan was considered heinous sin. When Bapiya attacked the caravan, Bahuchara and her sisters announced tragu and cut their breasts. Legends tells that Bapiya was cursed and became impotent. The curse was lifted only when he worshiped Bahuchara Mata by dressing and acting like woman . Today Bahuchara mata is considered patroness of—and worshipped by—the hijra community in India. Her followers believe in non-violence and consider killing of all animals and creatures a sin.

Depiction and symbols

Bahuchara Mata is shown as a woman who carries a sword on her top right, a text of scriptures on her top left, the abhay hasta mudra ("showering of blessings") on her bottom right, and a trident on her bottom left. She is seated on a rooster, which symbolises innocence.

Myths associated with Bahuchara Mata

One important myth concerns a king who prayed before Bahuchara Mata to bring him a son. Bahuchara complied but the prince Jetho, who was born to the king, was impotent. One night Bahuchara appeared to Jetho in a dream and ordered him to cut off his genitals, wear women's clothes and become her servant. Bahuchara Mata identified impotent men and commanded them to do the same. If they refused, she punished them by arranging that during their next seven incarnations they would be born impotent. This is how the cult of Bahuchara Mata, whose devotees are required to self-castrate and remain celibate, developed . In one of the many folk stories associated with Bahuchara Mata, the goddess was once a princess who castrated her husband because he preferred going to the forest and "behaving as a woman" instead of coming to her bridal bed. In another story, a man who attempted to molest Bahuchara Mata was cursed with impotence. He was forgiven only after he gave up his masculinity, dressed as a woman, and worshipped the goddess.


The temple of Bahuchara Mata is located in Bechraji town in Mehsana district of Gujarat, India. It is 110 km from Ahmedabad and 35 km west of Mahesana. The original temple complex was built in year 1783 AD. The temple is nicely decorated with stone carving. Every year 1.5 million pilgrims visit this temple [3]. Toda Mata (Bahuchara Mata) is located in Sankhalpur. The origin of Bahuchra Mata is situated at Varakhdiwala temple in Bechraji. Because Bhakta Vallabha Dhola wrote in his Aanand no Garbo the original place of Bahuchra Mata is situated at between Sankhalpur and Dedana village. The Toda Mata temple in Sankhalpur is 2 kilometers fare from Bechraji (Bahuchraji).

alarama (बलराम, Balarāma), also named Baladeva,Baldau,Balabhadra and Halayudha, is the elder brother of the divine being, Krishna in Hinduism. Within Vaishnavism and a number of South Indian, Hindu traditions Balarama is worshipped as an avatar of Vishnu, and he is also listed as such in the Bhagavata Purana. Within both the Vaishnava traditions and Hinduism generally he is acknowledged as being a manifestation of Shesha, the serpent on whom Vishnu rests.

The Bhagavata Purana describes Krishna as the original Supreme Personality of Godhead from whom everything else emanates. As part of this divine 'emanation', Krishna's very first expansion is Balarama, and from Balarama all other incarnations of God then appear. Of the three transcendental elements described in Sanskrit as sat, cit and ananda (eternity, knowledge and bliss), Balarama is in charge of eternity and knowledge. Hence he worshipped as the supreme teacher or Adiguru.


Balarama was born to Vasudeva and Devaki. Kansa, the brother of Devaki and an evil king, was intent upon killing all the children of his sister because of a prediction that he would die at the hands of her eighth son. Kansa thus threw his sister Devaki and her husband Vasudeva into prison, and proceeded to kill each of their children as they were born. However, the seventh child was transferred miraculously from Devaki's womb to the womb of Rohini, who had desired a child of her own. Thus Balarama's other name is also Sankarsana which describes the transfer of the child from the womb. The child was formally named Rama, but because of his great strength he was called Balarama (Strong Rama).

Thus, Rohini actually gave birth to Balarama and raised him. Balarama spent his childhood as a cowherd boy with his brother Krishna and friends. He later married Revati, the daughter of King Kakudmi, ruler of Kusasthali and Anarta.

Balarama in Gaudiya Vaishnava belief

Krishna-Balarama deities at the Krishna-Balarama Temple in Vrindavan
Krishna-Balarama deities at the Krishna-Balarama Temple in Vrindavan

Gaudiya Vaishnavas believe that Balarama is the Supreme Personality of Godhead himself. He is worshipped as equal in supremacy to Krishna, yet wherever Krishna appears, Baladeva appears as Krishna's brother, sometimes elder, sometimes younger. Balarama is constantly serving Krishna in every respect in all of Krishna's incarnations and manifestations. In Rama-lila, Balarama serves Ramachandra as his younger Brother, Lakshmana and in the current age (Kali-yuga), Balarama spreads the 'Sankirtan movement' of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as his close friend Nityananda.

The only theological difference between Krishna and Balarama is that the bodily hue of Krishna is dark and that of Balarama is fair. Krishna is the Creator, and Balarama is his creative potency, but they are both worshipped as the Supreme Primeval Lord.[citation needed]

Physical Characteristics

Balarama in Javanese Wayang
Balarama in Javanese Wayang

Balarama is almost always depicted as being fair skinned, especially in comparison to his brother, Krishna, who is shown as dark blue or black. His weapons are the plough and the mace (Sanskrit: gadā). Traditionally Balarama wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers. His hair is tied in a topknot and he has earrings, bracelets and armlets. Balarama is described as being very physically strong.

In Bhagavata Purana

One day, Nanda Maharaja requested Gargamuni, the family priest to visit their home in order to give names to Krishna and Balarama. When Gargamuni arrived at his house Nanda Maharaja, received him very well and then requested him to perform the naming ceremony. Gargamuni then reminded Nanda Maharaja that Kamsa was looking for the son of Devaki and said that if he performed the ceremony very opulently it would come to the notice of Kamsa, who would then suspect that Krishna was the son of Devaki. Nanda Maharaja therefore asked Gargamuni to perform the ceremony in secret, and Gargamuni did so giving the reasons for Balarama's names as follows:

"Because Balarama, the son of Rohini, increases the transcendental bliss of others, His name is Rama, and because of His extraordinary strength, He is called Baladeva. He attracts the Yadus to follow His instructions, and therefore His name is Sankarshana."

In Mahābhārata

Krishna and Balarama meet their parents. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma
Krishna and Balarama meet their parents. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma

Balarama famously taught both Duryodhana of the Kauravas and Bhima of the Pandavas the art of fighting with a mace. When war broke between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Balarama was equally affectionate to both parties and so decided to be neutral. Eventually when Bhima (of greater strength) defeated Duryodhana (of greater skill) by dealing a blow below the navel with his mace (a move against the rules of mace combat), Balarama threatened to kill Bhima. This was only prevented when Krishna reminded Balarama of Bhima's vow to kill Duryodhana by crushing the very thigh he exposed to his wife Draupadi.


In the Bhagavata Purana it is described that after Balarama took part in the battle that caused the destruction of the rest of the Yadu dynasty, and after he witnessed the disappearance of Krishna, he then sat down in a meditative state and departed from this world. In some accounts it is described that a great white snake left Balarama's mouth at this point in reference to his identity as Ananta-Sesha.

In Hinduism, Banka-Mundi is a goddess of the hunt and fertility.


In Hinduism, Bhadra (भद्र) is a goddess of the hunt and one of Shiva's servants.

  • Bhaga

Sanskrit bhaga is a term for "lord, patron", but also for "wealth, prosperity". The cognate term in Avestan and Old Persian is baga, of uncertain meaning but used in a sense in which "lord, patron" might also apply. A Slavic cognate is bog "god". The semantics is similar to English lord (from hlaford "bread warden"), the idea being that it is part of the function of a chieftain or leader to distribute riches or spoils among his followers. The name Baghdad shares its origins with the Middle Persian baga (baga-data: "god given", modern Persian: "Baghdad")

Personified, Bhaga is one of the Adityas, a god of wealth and marriage in Hinduism. Virabhadra, a great powerful hero created by Shiva, once blinded him. In the Rigveda Bhaga is the god who supervises the distribution of goods and destiny to each man corresponding to his merits. The word apparently, is cognative to "Bhagavan" and "Bhagya", terms used in several Indian languages to refer to God & destiny respectively.


Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव, "Terrible" or "Frightful"), sometimes known as Bhairo or Bhairon or Bhairadya, is the fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. He is one of the most important deities of Nepal, sacred to Hindus and Buddhists alike. Bhairava is invoked in prayers to destroy enemies.

He is depicted ornamented with a range of twisted serpents, which serve as earrings, bracelets, anklets, and sacred thread (yajnopavita). He wears a tiger skin and a ritual apron composed of human bones.[3] Bhairava has a dog as his divine vahana (vehicle).

Bhairava himself has eight manifestations, Kala Bhairava, Asitanga Bhairava, Samhara Bhairava, Ruru Bhairava, Krodha Bhairava, Kapala Bhairava, Rudra Bhirava and Unmatta Bhairava.


The origin of Bhairava can be traced to the conversation between Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu recounted in "Shiv Maha-Purana" where Lord Vishnu asks Lord Brahma who is the supreme creator of the Universe. Arrogantly, Brahma tells Vishnu to worship him because he (Brahma) is the supreme creator. This angered Shiva who in reality is the creator of all. Shiva then incarnated in the form of Bhairava to punish Brahma. Bhairava beheaded one of Brahma's five heads and since then Brahma has only four heads. When depicted as Kala Bhairava, Bhairava is shown carrying the amputated head of Brahma. Cutting off Brahma's fifth head made him guilty of Brahmanicide, and as a result, he was forced to carry around the head for years until he had been absolved of the sin.

Another story of the origin of Bhairava is the tale of Sati, wife of Shiva. Sati, the daughter of the king of gods, Daksha, had chosen to marry Shiva. Her father disapproved the alliance because he perceived Shiva as an ascetic associated with animals and ghosts and a frugal lifestyle. Eventually, Daksha held a yagna (a ritualistic sacrifice) and invited all the gods, but not Sati and Shiva. Sati came to the yagna alone, where Daksha publicly spoke in a belittling manner about Shiva. Sati could not bear to hear her husband insulted and offered herself to the sacrificial pyre.

When Shiva learned of this, he destroyed the yagna and killed Daksha by beheading him. Shiva carried Sati's corpse on his shoulders and ran uncontrollably all around the world for days. Since this would eventually destroy all creation, Vishnu used his Sudarshan Chakra (divine discus) to cut Sati's body into pieces, which then fell all around. These spots where Sati's body parts fell are now known as Shakti Peethas. In the form of the frightful Bhairava, Shiva is said to be guarding each of these Shaktipeeths. Each Shaktipeeth temple is accompanied by a temple dedicated to Bhairava.


  • Ashta Bhirava at Sri Kamanada Eswar temple, Aragalur, TN-IN.
  • Kal Bhairav Temple at Ujjain, M.P.
  • Kalabhairaveshvara Temple at Adichunchanagiri, Karnataka

In the Kathmandu valley

Bhairava is an important deity of Newars. All the traditional settlements of Newars have at least a temple of Bhairava. Most of the temples of Bhairava in Nepal are maintained by Newar priests. There are several Bhairava temples in the Kathmandu valley. Some of them are-

  • The Kala Bhairava temple in Hanuman Dhoka (Durbar Square) has a 12-foot (3.7 m) high stone image of Kala Bhairava sculpted in the 17th century CE. It was believed that people die if they speak false in front of this sculpture. So, this temple served as the supreme court of Nepal for a long time.
  • Akash Bhairava (Sava Bhakku Deva or Wanga Dya),
  • Swet Bhairava,
  • Shanta Bhairava (Majipa Lakhey Dya),
  • Kirtimukha Bhairava,
  • Unmukta Bhairava (inside the Pashupatinath temple)
  • Bagh Bhairava temple of Kirtipur.
  • Batuk Bhairava temple, Lagankhel




Bharati is the Hindu goddess of knowledge and music more commonly known as Saraswati


Bhavani is a ferocious aspect of theHindu goddess Parvati . Bhavani means "giver of life", the power of nature or the source of creative energy. In addition to her ferocious aspect, she is also known as Karunaswaroopini, "filled with mercy".

Bhavani was the tutelary deity of the Maratha leader Shivaji, to whom she presented a sword. A temple to Bhavani at Tuljapur in Maharashtra, dates back to the 12th century. The temple contains a meter-high granite icon of the goddess, with eight arms holding weapons. She also holds the head of the demon Mahishasura, whom she slew in Mysore.


The Tulja Bhavani temple in Tuljapur in Osmanabad district of Maharashtra is considered as one of the 51 Shakti Pithas. This temple was built in c. 12th century CE. A Tulja Bhavani temple was built between 1537-1540 CE in Chittorgarh.

Daily puja rituals in Tulja Bhavani temple of Tuljapur

Goddess Bhavani giving the sword to Shivaji
Goddess Bhavani giving the sword to Shivaji

Chaughada (holy drumming ritual at morning): - At 5 AM, the morning before the Puja starts, the large drums in the Drum house (Nagarkhana) of Tuljabhavani temple are drummed loudly. The meaning of this drumming is that, the devotees should prepared and come before the puja. The drums are drummed (Chaughada) three times during the day.

Charantirtha (sacred water ritual of goddess feet and mouth):- The puja performed at 5:30 morning is called Charantirtha. This puja is performed by the hands of Mahant Vakoji Bua. At the time of Charantirtha puja, the representative of Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is present. The Mahanta washes goddess mouth and feet with hot water, odoriferous oil, Dudhkhir (milk), Pan (food). Devotees sing the Arti (Holy songs). After this Bhaji-Bhakri the Nevaidya (holy meal) is offered to the goddess. The descendant representative of the devotee Uparkar offers this Nevaidya. Later the Nevaidya of Kheer by the representative of Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is offered.

Abhishek (holy bath ritual to goddess) Puja (prayer):- At 9 o'clock in the morning the goddess has a bath of Panchamrut and curd. Honey, banana and sugar is rubbed to goddess' mouth. The Gomukh (holy pond of the goddess) water is used for goddess' bath. During this puja some people bathe the holy throne of goddess by curd, mango liquid, shreekhand. After the bath, Mahanevaidya (big holy meal) by the Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is offered to goddess.

Dhup arti:- at 12 noon, the clergy and devotees praise the goddess by singing holy songs and lighting the dhup and karpur (camphor).

Abhishek (holy bath ritual to goddess):- at 6 o'clock that evening, the goddess is bathed by Panchamruta and water from Gomukha, and puja is performed. The arrangement of these materials is done by the Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state.

Shejarti (nightly sleep songs ritual) and Prakkshal: - At night the Prakkshal ritual is done by the holy water from the Gomukha. And the Nevaidya of Tup (Indian liquid butter) and Bhat (cooked rice) is offered.

At each arti ritual, instruments such as Tal, Dimdi and Zanj are played . Gondhali plays the Sambal instrument as Chaughada (Drums) are drummed.


Bhūma Devī or Bhūmi-Devī or Bhū Devī is the divine wife of Lord Varaha, an Avatar of Lord Vishnu. According to Hindu mythology, the divine saint Andal is a form of her. The demon Narakasura whose killing by Krishna is celebrated as the festival of Diwali is her son.[1]. She is the mother of Sita, (note the symbolism of the baby Sita being found in a ploughed field). According to the uttara-kanda, when Sita finally leaves her husband Rama, she returns to Bhumi. Bhumi Devi is also believed to be one of the two forms of Lakshmi. The other is Sridevi, who remains with Narayana. Bhudevi is the Goddess of Earth, and the fertility form of Lakshmi.

Several female deities have had births similar to Sita. Alamelu Thayar of Tiruchendur had a similar beginning, being found in a ploughed field by Akasa Raja. Goda (Andal) was found under a Tulasi plant by Perialvar.


She is depicted in votive statuary, seated on a square platform which rests on the back of four elephants representing the four corners of the world. When depicted with four arms, she holds a pomegranate, a water vessel, a bowl containing healing herbs, and another containing vegetables. When shown with two arms, she holds a blue lotus known as Komud or Uttpal the night lotus, in the right hand.[3] The left hand may be in the Abhaya Mudra - fearlessness or the Lolahasta Mudra which is an aesthetic pose meant to mimic the tail of a cow.


In Hinduism, Bhumiya is a fertility god who was eventually identified as a form of Vishnu.


In Hinduism, Bhutamata is a terrible and malevolent goddess, a form of Devi.


In Hinduism, Bhuvaneshvari is the fourth of the ten Mahavidya goddesses and an aspect of Devi. According to some Hindu traditions, Bhuvaneshvari, who is known for her beauty, co-operates with Shiva in bringing forth from the formless primal light the elements of the physical cosmos, in giving shape to the inchoate; hence her epithet "Creator (or Co-creatrix) of the World". Also Bhuvaneshwari is considered as the supreme goddesses who creates everything and destroys all the unnecessary evils of world. She is also considered as the Mother goddess of Kali, Lakshmi and Saraswati also Gayatri. In Hindu Mythology she is considered as the most powerful goddess in the universe. Parvati is Sagun Roop of Goddess Bhuvanesvari

More than any other Mahavidya with the exception of Kamalatmika, Bhuvaneshvari is associated and identified with the energy underlying creation. She embodies the characteristic dynamics and constituents that make up the world and that lend creation its distinctive character. She is both a part of creation and also pervades its aftermath.

Bhuvanesvari means Mistress of the World. Bhuvaneshvari's beauty is mentioned often. Her dhyana describes her as having a radiant vermilion complexion resembling the sunrise and a beautiful face, framed with flowing hair the color of black bees. Her eyes are broad, her lips full and red, her nose delicate. Her firm breasts are smeared with sandal paste and saffron. Her waist is thin, and her thighs,and navel are lovely. Her beautiful throat is decorated with ornaments, and her arms are made for embracing. She is seated on a throne, adorned with a flower garland and anklets, bracelets of fine gems. She is also found seated on lions, also group of lions sit around her throne. A crescent moon adorns her forehead, resting atop a jeweled crown. She has three eyes and a pleasant, nurturing smile. She has four arms, in two of which she holds a noose and a goad. With her lower left hand, she makes the gesture (varada-mudra) of offering a boon, and with the lower right she signals fearlessness (abhaya mudra).She is a shakti present everywhere but not seen anywhere.

This beauty and attractiveness may be understood as an affirmation of the physical world. Tantric thought does not denigrate the world or consider it illusory or delusory, as do some other abstract aspects of Indian thought. This is made amply clear in the belief that the physical world, the rhythms of creation, maintenance and destruction, even the hankerings and sufferings of the human condition is nothing but Bhuvaneshvari's play, her exhilarating, joyous sport.

She is also known as Om Shakthi or Adi Shakthi i.e one of the earliest forms of shakthi. She is capable of turning situations according to her wish. It is considered that even the navagrahas cannot stop her from doing anything.


Lord Brahma
symbolizes the aspect of the Supreme Reality that brings forth the creation. For this very reason, Hindus call Lord Brahma the Creator of the universe. He is the first member of the Hindu Trinity that also includes Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva. His divine consort is Saraswati, the Goddess of learning and knowledge. Goddess Saraswati provides Lord Brahma with knowledge that is necessary for the process of creation.

Brahma is usually conceived of by Hindus as a bearded, four-faced, four-armed deity. In popular images, He carries a rosary in the upper right hand, a book in the upper left hand, a kamandalu (water pot) in the lower left hand, and bestows grace with His lower right hand. The four faces represent the sacred knowledge of the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva), and this is the most prominent feature of any image of Brahma. The four faces, therefore, symbolize that Brahma is the source of all knowledge necessary for the creation of the universe. The four arms represent the four directions and thus represent the omnipresence and omnipotence of Lord Brahma.

The four hands represent the four aspects of human personality: mind (back right hand), intellect (back left hand), ego (front right hand), and the empirical self or conditioned consciousness (front left hand). The rosary symbolizes the time cycle through which the world moves from creation to sustenance, from sustenance to dissolution, and from dissolution to new creation. The rosary also symbolizes the materials used in the process of creation. Its position in the back right hand suggests the intelligent use of these materials in the process of creation.

A book in the back hand (symbolizing the intellect) illustrates that right knowledge is important for any kind of creative work. A water pot (kamandalu) in the front left hand symbolizes the cosmic energy by which Brahma brings the universe into existence. The hand symbolizing ego (the front right hand) is shown in the pose of bestowing grace. This conveys the idea that the Lord bestows grace and protects all sincere devotees.

The color gold symbolizes activity and thus the golden face of Brahma indicates that the Lord is active when involved in the process of creation. The white beard denotes wisdom and the long beard conveys the idea that creation is an eternal process. The crown on the head of the Lord implies that the Lord has supreme power and authority over the process of creation.

The lotus symbolizes the Supreme Reality, the essence of all things and beings in the universe. Brahma sitting or standing on a lotus indicates that He represents the creative power of the Supreme Reality. The color white symbolizes purity. Thus Brahma wearing clothes that are off-white, represents the dual nature of creation, that is purity and impurity, happiness and unhappiness, vice and virtue, knowledge and ignorance, and so on.

In Hindu mythology, a swan is said to possess a unique discriminating faculty, which enables it to distinguish pure milk from a mixture of milk and water. The swan is therefore used to symbolize the power of discrimination. Brahma uses the swan as a vehicle. This is intended to convey the idea that although creation is pluralistic in nature, there is only one Supreme Reality that the entire universe emanates from. This knowledge can be acquired by an individual by training his mind and Intellect to acquire the power of right discrimination.

As creation is the work of the mind and the intellect, Lord Brahma symbolizes the Universal Mind. From the standpoint of an individual, Brahma symbolizes one's own mind and intellect. Since an individual is naturally gifted with the mind and intellect, he or she may be said to have already realized Brahma. For this reason the worship of Brahma is not very popular among all Hindus. He is, however, worshipped by seekers of knowledge, such as students, teachers, scholars and scientists.

Aspects of Brahma

  • Prajapati

In Hinduism, Prajapati (Sanskrit prajā-pati प्रजापति "lord of creatures") is a Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protector of life. He appears as a creator deity or supreme god above the other Vedic deities in RV 10.121.10 and in Brahmana literature. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta.

In later times, he is identified with Vishnu, Shiva, with the personifications of Time, Fire, the Sun, etc. He is also identified with various mythical progenitors, especially the ten lords of created beings first created by Brahmā, the Prajapatis Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaka, Kratu, Vasishtha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, Nārada.

The Mahabharata mentions, in the words of celestial sage Narada, 14 Prajapatis (lit:caretakers of the Praja), namely: Daksha, Prachetas, Pulaha, Marichi, Kasyapa, Bhrigu, Atri, Vasistha, Gautama, Angiras, Pulastya, Kratu, Prahlada and Kardama who are the caretakers of the fourteen worlds - seven lokas and seven talas.


Bhairavi is a fierce and terrifying aspect of the Goddess virtually indistinguishable from Kali, except for her particular identification as the consort of the Wrathful Shiva.


Bhairavi is also identified with Kalaratri, a name often associated with Kali that means “black night (of destruction)” and refers to a particularly destructive aspect of Kali. She is also identified with Mahapralaya, the great dissolution at the end of a cosmic cycle, during which all things, having been consumed with fire, are dissolved in the formless waters of procreation. She is the force that tends toward dissolution. This force, furthermore, which is actually Bhairavi herself, is present in each person as one gradually ages, weakens and finally dies. Destruction is apparent everywhere, and therefore Bhairavi is present everywhere. She is also called Shubmkari, Good Mother to Good People and Terrible to bad ones. Its believed that when Bhairavi entered the battle field, her horrible appearance made the demons become weak and very feeble, and it's believed that most of the demons started panicking as soon as they saw her. Bhairavi is seen mainly as the Mahakali in the Durga Saptashathi version of slaying Shumbha and Nishumbha. However, she kills and drinks the blood of Chanda and Munda the Chieftains of asuras, so the Goddess Parvathi gives her a boon that she would be called Chamundeshwari. In other forms she is also identified with Parvathi or Durga. When furious she is found sitting on a faithful donkey, with her mouth full of demons' blood, her body covered with a tiger skin and skeleton. She also presents the abhaya mudra and vara mudhra, and she is shown holding weapons such as a trident, axe, and thunderbolt.

One of her dhyana mantras, that of Sampatprada-bhairavi, says that she is intoxicated with her youth, and most descriptions of her, despite her association with destruction, say that she is attractive, young, and shapely.

Bhairavi has facets and epithets that assert her cosmic importance, if not supremacy. A commentary on the Parashurama-kalpasutra says that the name Bhairavi is derived from the words bharana (to create), ramana (to protect), and vamana (to emit or disgorge). The commentator, that is, seeks to discern the inner meaning of Bhairavi’s name by identifying her with the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction.

Other Definitions

Bhairavi is also a title for a female adept in Kundalini Tantra. A Yogini is a student of Tantra, or an aspirent. A Bhairavi is one who has succeeded. Supposedly there are many more levels of achievement than these two, but Tantra is, in essence, a mystery religion, and one would have to be initiated, to learn them all. The name "Bhairavi" means "Terror," or "awe-inspiring," so the one who has achieved the state of Bhairavi, is beyond the fear of death, and therefore awesome.


In Hinduism, 'Bharani' is a goddess of good luck.[citation needed] Like her sister Anuradha, she is a daughter of Daksha, and wife of Chandra.


In Hindu mythology, Budha (Sanskrit: बुध, not to be confused with Buddha) is the name for the planet Mercury, a son of Chandra (the moon) with Tara or Rohini. He is also the god of merchandise and protector of Merchants.

He is represented as being mild, eloquent and of greenish colour. He is represented holding a scimitar, a club and a shield, riding a winged lion in Ramghur temple. In other illustrations , he holds a sceptre and lotus and rides a carpet or an eagle or a chariot drawn by lions..

Budha presides over 'Budhavara' or Wednesday. In modern Hindi, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi,Kannada and Gujarati, Wednesday is called Budhavara; in Tamil and Malayalam it is Budhan.

Budha married Ila, the daughter of Vaivasvata Manu and fathered a son Pururava.

In astrology

In Vedic astrology Budha is considered a benefic, unless he is joined with another malefic planet, in which case he becomes malefic also. Mercury rules over Mithuna (Gemini and Kanya (Virgo), is exalted in Kanya and in his fall in Meena (Pisces). Budha is friendly with the sun and Venus, hostile to the Moon and neutral towards the other planets. Budha represents intelligence, intellect, communication, analysis, the senses (especially the skin), science, mathematics, business, education and research. The written word and journeys of all types fall within his domain. Budha is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: Ashlesha, Jyeshtha and Revati. Budha has the following associations: the color green, the metal brass and gemstone emerald. The direction associated with Budha is north, the season is autumn and the element is earth.

Buddhi is a feminine Sanskrit noun derived from the same root (budh – to be awake; to understand; to know) as its more familiar masculine form Buddha. The word signifies a transpersonal faculty of mind higher than the rational mind that might be translated as ‘intuitive intelligence’ or simply ‘higher mind’. It is ‘that which knows’, ie, able to discern truth from falsehood. Buddhi constitutes the first level of individuation of the infinitely cognoscent formless Brahman into manifest phenomenal reality; the formation (differentiation) of the jivatman from the paramatman. It makes its first scriptural appearance in the Katha Upanisad where it is compared in a famous simile to the driver of a horse and carriage, where the reins held by the driver represent the lower mind (manas); the horses represent the five senses and the carriage itself - the body. Ontologically, buddhi is equivalent to hiranyagarbha and is to individual living souls - jivas - as hiranyagarbha is to the insentient phenomena of the universe. Buddhi is the gateway between the phenomenal and the eternal. It may, on the one hand, through identification and desire cause the incarnation of Brahman into material existence as an individual soul or it may through wisdom (prajña) lead an already incarnate soul to dissolve identification with material phenomena

Budhi Pallien

In Hinduism, Budhi Pallien is a fearsome goddess of forests and jungles, who roams northern India in the form of a tiger.


Venkateshwara (Telugu వెంకటేశ్వరుడు , వెంకన్న, Sanskrit: वेंकटेश्वर), also known as Venkatachalapathy, Srinivasa and Balaji, is a form of the Hindu god Vishnu in India. Venkateshwara means the Lord who destroys the sins of the people. According the Hindu scriptures, Vishnu, out of love towards his devotees, incarnated as Venkateshwara and appeared for the salvation and upliftment of humanity in this Kali Yuga and is considered the supreme form of Vishnu in this age

Etymology and other names

The name Venkateshwara can be split into multiple parts in Sanskrit: Ven (sins), kata (destroyer), and ishwara (Supreme Lord). Using this etymology, Venkateshwara refers to the Supreme Lord who destroys sins.

The ancient Vishnu kautuvam describes him as Souryarayan, the one who destroys the evil and who comforts us. He is also known as Maal, ThiruMaal, Manivannan, Balaji (though this is a more recent name),Venkateshwer, Srinivasa, Venkatesha, Venkatanatha, Venkatachalapathi, Thiruvengadam Udaiyaan, Tiruvengadattaan Tirupati Thimmappa, and by many other names. He is also worshiped with the name Tirupati Thimmappa all over Karnataka by traditionally Shiva-worshipping communities. The presence of seven hills in the area influenced alternate names for the deity: such as Edukondalavadu in Telugu and as Ezhumalaiyan in Tamil both of which mean "Lord of the Seven Hills". Lord Venkateswara is also known as Maha Ketarie and Maha Parmasree.


Main article: Legend of Tirumala

According to the scripture Sthala Purana, the legend of Venkateshwara's Avatara (incarnation) is believed to be as follows:

Sage Bhrugu, who according to Vedas is believed to have an extra eye in the sole of his foot, once visited Vishnu. At that time, Vishnu was in a private meeting with his consort, goddess Lakshmi, and failed to immediately receive and honour the sage. The sage felt humiliated and angry, and kicked Vishnu in the chest. Vishnu did not react and remained silent. Vishnu's chest is believed to be the abode of Lakshmi. The goddess felt highly insulted at the sage's misdemeanour and Vishnu's silence at the act. She left Vaikunta, the heavenly abode of Vishnu and Lakshmi.

Vishnu, in an attempt to pacify the sage, got hold of legs of the sage and started to press them gently in a way that was comforting to the sage. During this act, he squished the extra eye that was present in the sole of Bhrugu's foot. The extra eye is believed to represent the sage's egotism. The sage then realised his grave mistake and apologized to Vishnu. Vishnu had then incarnated Himself as Venkateshwara and came to earth in search of Lakshmi, who had taken birth as princess Alamelu (Padmavati) in the household of Akasa Rajan. The princess's father agreed to give his daughter's hand in marriage to Venkateshwara if he provided proof of his wealth. Towards the end, Venkateshwara obtained a heavy loan from Kubera, the Hindu treasurer god of the virtuous wealth in the Universe. Princess Padmavati and Lord Venkateshwara were then wed.

Vishnu, in the form of Venkateshwara, and his consort are believed to have enshrined themselves at Tirumala Tirupati for the benefit of mankind. This phenomenon is called swayambhu loosely translated to mean "self-existent and established on earth of one's own accord, without any external cause".

Venkateshwara's temple is at the top of the seven hills in the place called Tirumala. The temple of the Lakshmi, in the form of Padmavati, is located at the foot of the seven hills at Tirupati, in a town called Tiruchanur.

Another legend, a helper boy called Bala, was one day wrongly accused as a thief. He ran for his life when chased by people. He was hit on the head by the mob and his head was bleeding profusely. He ran to the Tirupati temple of Lord Vishnu and ran to the main door of the temple. When the people entered the temple, they couldn't find the boy but saw the head of god's idol bleeding. It was considered that the boy was sheltered and protected by Vishnu himself and the priests put cloth on the idol's head to stop the bleeding.

Location of main shrine

Venkateshwara's abode is in the Venkatam hills (the hills are more often referred to as ThiruVenkatam) near Tirupathi. Thus, the main temple of Venkateshwara is the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple. The Tirumala temple is believed to be the richest of all the temples in the world. The temple is located in Andhra Pradesh (southern India) in Chittoor district. It is around 120 km away from Chennai.


Many saints had visited the shrine and worshipped Venkateswara. Notable among them, Adi Sankaracharya came to Tirumala and placed Sri Chakra at the feet of Venkateshwara and sung the song "Bhaja Govindam". Ramanujacharya, who installed chakra and conch on the deity after a dispute.[citation needed]

The Venkateswara Suprabhatam, being the morning recital of prayers and songs of awakening, is believed to have been written and sung by one of Ramanujacharya's disciples who visited the temple with his Guru. Sri Vadiraja Thirtha, most prominent[citation needed] among the Madhva saints is believed to have climbed the tirumala hill on his knees and is said to have given a garland of shaligram to the Lord.

There is Govindaraya Vishnu temple in the Tirupati town down below the hills with Vishnu in Yoga Nidra with Sridevi and Bhoodevi next to him. Traditionally, Kurubas is said to have built the temples on top of the mountains for the worship of Vishnu.

Several composers composed beautiful kirtanas about Venkateshwara, most notable amongst them being Tyagaraja and Annamacharya. Annamacharya, a devotee of Venkateswara, composed songs almost exclusively about the deity.

Symbolic Description

In iconographic depictions, Lord Venkateswara's eyes are covered, because it is said, that his gaze is so intense, it would scorch the universe.[1]

Other sources cite that the covering of the eyes is to hide the original identity of Venkateswara, as sources have cited that Venkateswara is a standing Alokitesvara Buddha.[citation needed]To back their claims, Shravana is regarded as a Buddhist tradition, as is hair tonsure.In addition, this is the only temple of Vishnu where the deities eyes are covered. Regardless, Venkateswara is and will always be a central deity in the Sri Vaishnava tradition.


Beeralingeswara / Biroba / Birappa, a form of the Hindu god Shiva, is the main deity worshiped by the Dhangar/Kuruba caste.

There is a famous temple of this deity at Aarewadi, Dist:Sangli (Maharashtra).



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